Active and passive oxygen therapy - basic concepts and principles for KPP Rescuers

Sign up for an e-learning course Oxygen therapy and instrumental clearing of the airways and GET THE CERTIFICATE!

A KPP rescuer when providing first aid often has to face breath support in a person with shortness of breath or conducting a replacement breath in an injured person who has been detained.

At the level of qualified first aid, supporting the breath of the injured person involves the use of passive oxygen therapy using an oxygen cylinder and a mask. However, breathing a replacement breath involves the use of active oxygen therapy, using an oxygen cylinder and a self-inflating bag. The use of oxygen therapy in an unconscious person is also associated with the need to properly open the airways using dedicated tools included in the equipment of the R-1 first aid kit. However, the use of these procedures requires appropriate theoretical knowledge and skills.

When supporting the breath, it is very important to correctly build the set for active and passive oxygen therapy, while maintaining the principles of safe handling of pressurized gases. The use of passive oxygen therapy is a procedure in which, using a suitable kit, we enable the injured person to breathe air enriched with an even greater than atmospheric oxygen concentration. During such therapy, the injured person breathes on his own, and the breathing mixture enriched by the rescuer significantly improves the condition of the injured person, e.g. suffered from shortness of breath. The correct assembly of the oxygen therapy kit is associated with the use of a compressed oxygen cylinder. The use of active oxygen therapy differs from the use of passive oxygen therapy in the basic assumption of the procedure itself. Active oxygen therapy is used in patients who have stopped breathing, i.e. when a rescuer performs a replacement breath using a self-inflating bag. During active oxygen therapy, the oxygen inside the aforementioned self-inflating bag is enriched with oxygen. This results in better oxygen saturation of the injured blood, which gives him a much better prognosis.

In an unconscious patient, special attention should be paid to the significant risk of airway obstruction by the flaccid tongue falling on the back of the throat when providing first aid. The tools necessary to effectively open the airways of an unconscious person are the oropharyngeal tube, nasopharynx tube, laryngeal mask and laryngeal tube. In addition, opening the airway significantly facilitates further replacement breathing using a self-inflating bag. The oropharyngeal tube, also known as the Guedel tube, is a plastic mold with a clear path and anatomical shape. Correct use prevents the airway being blocked by a slender tongue sticking to the back of the throat, e.g. in an unconscious victim. The principle of operation of the nasopharynx tube is very similar to the operation of the aforementioned oropharyngeal tube. Its use ensures free air flow between the atmosphere and the respiratory tract. It is worth noting that this tube is much better tolerated by conscious people than Guedel tube. The laryngeal mask is a device used to unblock the respiratory tract to ensure constant gas exchange during artificial ventilation. Its undoubted advantage is that its construction very tightly covers and adheres to the entrance to the larynx and epiglottis. This design significantly reduces the risk of air entering the stomach during replacement breaths. The laryngeal tube is a device with a principle of operation very similar to the operation of the larynx mask. It differs only in the manner of sealing in relation to the respiratory tract - in the case of the larynx tube, use a syringe to inflate a balloon ensuring tightness in the respiratory tract of the injured person. A mechanical mammal is a very simple and very effective tool in rescue operations. If the liquid or semi-liquid content is in the throat or mouth of the victim, there is a high risk of inhalation into the lungs when he tries to take in air. This can lead to choking and then to death due to suffocation. The use of a mechanical mammal allows you to quickly and effectively remove such content, which significantly reduces the risk of the previously mentioned choking.

  • European Funds - Smart Growth
  • Republic of Poland
  • European Union - European Regional Development Fund
Przełącz na polski